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Business

Brinjal Farming Business in India – A Complete Guide

Brinjal (Solenum Melongena) is a vegetable that is native to India and is widely grown in Asian countries. Other countries where it is popular include Egypt, France, Italy, and the United States. Brinjal is a more hardy vegetable than other vegetables. Because of its hardiness, it can grow successfully in dry areas with limited irrigation. It contains a moderate amount of vitamins and minerals. It can grow all year. After China, India is the world’s second-largest producer of brinjal. West Bengal, Orissa, Karnataka, Bihar, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh are the central brinjal-growing states in India.

Soil for Brinjal Farming 

Brinjal is a hardy crop that can grow in various soil types. Because it is a long-lasting crop, it requires well-drained fertile sandy loam soil, which suited for cultivation and yield. Light soil is ideal for early cropping; clay loam and silt loam are suitable for high yielding crops. The soil pH is 5.5 and 6.6 for good growth. Use good quality tractor tyres. Also, the tractor tyre price is reasonable in India.   

Popular Varieties

Punjab Bahar: The plant’s height is approximately 93 cm. Fruits are round, dark purple glistening in colour, with few seeds. It has a yield of 190 QTL/acre on average.

Punjab No. 8: The plants are medium in height. It has a yield of 130 QTL/acre on average.

Jamuni GOI (S 16): Punjab Agriculture University developed the Jamuni GOI (S 16). The fruits are long, plumy, and brilliant purple colour.

Punjab Barsati: This variety is a cultivar developed by the Punjab Agriculture University. These plants are resistant to fruit borers. The fruits are medium in size, long, and purple. It has a yield of 140 QTL/acre on average.

PH 4: Punjab Agriculture University developed this variety. The fruits are medium in size and length. The fruits are dark purple. It has a yield of 270 QTL/acre on average.

Punjab Neelam: It is a variety created by the Punjab Agriculture University. The fruits are long and purple. It has a yield of 140 QTL/acre on average.

Punjab Sadabahar: The variety is a Punjab Agriculture University-developed variety. The fruits are long and black. It has a yield of 130 QTL/acre on average.

PBH-5: In 2017, it was released. It has a yield of 225qtl/acre on average. It has fruit that is long, shiny, and black-purple.

PBHR-41: In 2016, it was released. It has a yield of 269qtl/acre on average. It has round, moderate to large, shiny, and greenish-purple fruits.

BH 2: In 1994, it was released. It has a yield of 235qtl/acre on average. The fruit has an average weight of 300gm.

Other Varieties

PBHR-42: In 2016, it was released. It has a yield of 261qtl/acre on average. Fruits are egg-round in shape, moderately shiny, and black-purple.

PBH-4: In 2016, it was released. It has a yield of 270qtl/acre on average. It has fruits that are moderately long, shiny, and black-purple.

Punjab Nagina: In 2007, the film Punjab Nagina was released. It has a yield of 145qtl/acre on average. It has black-purple fruits with a gleaming appearance. After 55 days of sowing, the variety is ready for harvest.

Punjab Barsati: Punjab Barsati was released in 1987. It has a yield of 140qtl/acre on average. It has purple fruit that is moderately long and gleaming.

Pusa Purple Long: This is an early maturing variety. Harvestable in 70-80 days after sowing in the winter and 100-110 days in the summer. The plant grows to a medium height, and the fruits are long and purple. It has a yield of 130 QTL/acre on average.

Pusa Purple Cluster: ICAR, New Delhi, created the Pusa Purple Cluster. Varieties of medium duration. The fruits are deep purple and borne in clusters. Resistant to bacterial wilt.

The fruits of Pusa Hybrid 5 are long and dark purple. Harvestable in 80-85 days. It produces an average yield of 204 QTL/acre.

Pusa Purple Round is resistant to leaf, shoot, and fruit borer.

Land Preparation 

You should apply deep ploughing 4-5 times and levelling. Then, before transplanting, beds of appropriate size made in the field after well prepared and levelled. This operation can be perfect with advanced and modern farming machines like harrows. And the harrow price is cheap in India.  

Nursery Management 

Brinjal seeds planted in nursery beds 3 metres long, 1 metre wide, and 15 cm high. The nursery bed then mixed with well-rotted farmyard manure. For avoiding damping-off disease in the brinjal nursery, the nursery bed soaked in Captain solution two days before sowing. The seeds are then sown rows 5 cm apart, and the nursery covered with compost or dry leaves. Irrigation done sparingly. Cover the nursery beds with black polythene sheets or paddy straw until the seed germinates. Healthy seedlings with 3-4 leaves and a height of 12-15 cm are ready for transplanting. Transplanting takes place in the evening, and light irrigation follows. It can also be helpful to you if you use good quality farming tools like Mini Tiller and others.

Sowing 

Prepare the nursery for the first crop in October, and seedlings will be ready for transplantation in November. The spacing generally determined by the soil fertility (size, spread, and bearing period). Use a 60 cm row for rowing spacing and a 35-40 cm plant to plant spacing. Sow seeds at a depth of 1 cm in a nursery and cover them with soil.

Weed Control 

Two to four weddings and hoeings generally required for weed control, aeration, and plant growth. Mulching with black polythene film inhibits weed growth and keeps soil temperatures stable. Pre-plant soil application of Fluchloralin@800-1000 ml/acre or Oxadiazon@400g/acre and pre-plant surface spraying of Alachlor@2 ltr/acre for better weed control.

Irrigation 

Irrigate the field every third or fourth day during the summer and every 12 to 15 days in the winter. Irrigation at the right time is critical for high brinjal yields. In addition, we should irrigate brinjal fields regularly to keep the soil moist during frosty days. Brinjal cannot tolerate waterlogging, so avoid standing water in the area.

Plant Protection

  • Wilt: Drench the soil with Copper Oxychloride@2.5gm
  • Mosaic: Spray with Acephate 75SP@1gm or Dimethoate@2ml or Methyl demeton 25EC@2ml/Ltr of water
  • Little Leaf: Spray of Thiamethoxam 25%WG@5gm/15Ltr water
  • Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot: Spray with Zineb @ 2gm or Mancozeb @2.5gm
  • Damping Off: Drenching with Copper Oxychloride@3gm
  • Root Knot Nematodes: Incorporate Carbofuran or Phorate@5-8kg/acre
  • Leaf eating caterpillar: Spray of Emamectin benzoate @4gm 
  • Mite: Spray of Abamectin@1-2ml
  • Thrips: Spray of Verticillium lecani@5gm
  • Aphids: Spray with Acetamiprid@5gm
  • Fruit and Shoot Borer: Spray of Spinosad@1ml

Harvesting 

Brinjal harvested when the fruit has reached the proper size, colour, and ripening stage. The fruit should have a glossy appearance and an attractive bright colour to fetch reasonable market prices. Apart from this crop, you can use harvesters for making harvesting easy and simple. The harvester price is also fair according to its usefulness. 

Post Harvest 

Due to high transpiration and water loss, We cannot store brinjal fruits at room temperature for an extended period. However, we can hold brinjal fruit at 10-11°C and 92 per cent relative humidity for 2-3 weeks. Grading done after harvesting based on Super, Fancy, and Commercial. Use gunny bags or baskets for packing.

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