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Building construction process from start to finish that you need to know!

Basic knowledge of building construction – Tips and Hacks

BUILDING THE FOUNDATION

This is an important stage as the dimensions of the foundation have to be perfectly right. Otherwise, the future spaces will be affected. The Building foundation depth depends on the soil quality and the design of the foundation is decided by the site conditions. The excavation drawing and foundation details are prepared by the structural designer and approved by the Architect. Once the excavations are done, the next step is to build the foundation.

Load bearing structure foundation

A bed of concrete (PCC) is laid at the base of the trenches and the foundation is built using size-stones.

Column-beam frame structure system

In this case, a mat of steel bars tied together and placed at the bottom of the footing pit. The steel bars for the column are also tied in place with the help of binding wire. Column boxes are erected around it for pouring concrete.

Pouring concrete

After the approval of the steel details and the quality of work, the concrete can be poured. Concrete can be prepared at site or the contractor may opt for ready mix concrete (RMC) as per the requirement.

Plinth Beam

After the concrete columns have been raised to the Plinth beam level, the plinth beam is erected for the walls of the house to rest on.

Also Check: Lintel Replacements and Repairs

MARKING THE EXCAVATION

Marking

The excavation plan is marked by the construction contractor at site and the dimensions are cross-checked by the Architect. It is advisable that you also check the dimensions as any mistake can be brought to the Architect’s and Contractor’s notice so that it can be rectified before it is late. Once the marking has been approved, the excavation can begin.

Depth of excavation

The excavation depth depends on the soil condition. Digging is done till hard soil is reached.

Filled up soil

If your site/Layout is formed on lakes or low-lying areas, it may have a lot of filled up soil. In such areas excavation must be done till firm ground is reached. Make sure the building is resting on solid ground even if it means you have to go 15 feet down, because otherwise it will affect the stability and strength of the house.

Anti-termite treatment

Before laying the foundation, make sure that the trenches and excavated areas have been given the anti-termite treatment by the Contractor. This will ensure protection against termites and other pests from underground, in the future.

CURING OF FOUNDATION

Curing is very important during the construction period. If not done properly, cracks can appear and even the strength and life of the building components can be affected. Curing ensures that certain chemical reactions take place which strengthen the structure.

Chemical reaction during curing

There are two types of chemical reactions, one that releases heat during the process (Exothermic) and another that absorbs heat (Endothermic). The mixing of cement with water is an exothermic reaction due to the presence of lime stone. Because of this heat generation, the water in the mortar or concrete mix evaporates even before the compound gains strength. But for the structure to gain maximum strength, chemical reactions in a cement compound must go on and this can happen only in the presence of water and at an ambient temperature. Hence there is a need to preserve the water content and the ambient temperature and this is achieved by regular curing.

Starting the Curing process

Curing should start from the very next day after the concrete has been poured. Initially more water will be absorbed by the concrete elements, but after a week, the water required will be much less. If there is water runoff when water is poured on a new construction, curing should be stopped. The hotter the outside temperatures more amount of curing is required. Curing should be done at least twice a day though three times is better

Curing of Columns

For columns, the preferred method is to wrap the pillar with wet gunny bags and then wetting them regularly. This is done because, while pouring water, the column does not absorb much water as it flows away. So to ensure that the column gets cured evenly, the gunny bag method is used. Sometimes a plastic bottle or polythene bag with a small hole is placed on the column so that the water drips steadily and the gunny bags are wet all the time.

CONSTRUCTION OF SUMP

As part of your House Construction, two water tanks are to be constructed. The Underground Water tank and the Overhead water tank. Of these two, the Underground tank also known as the Sump to which the municipal water pipe is connected, is the first to be constructed and should be built before digging for the foundation. This is because, being an underground tank, the excavation must be done before the rest of the foundation-excavation is started.

So the next step after constructing the temporary shed and organizing a watchman to stay in the shed (either by you or by your contractor) is to build the SUMP. Here are some simple guidelines in planning, locating and constructing the sump.

Location of sump

Close to the road

The Sump location should ideally be close to the road as the water lines run along the road. This way, a short connection to the sump from the water lines is sufficient and getting the right slope in the connection pipe is not a matter of concern. Being close to the road is also advantageous when you hire a water tanker to fill up your sump as it is easily accessible.

Under the porch

Because there is plenty of room here and it is typically close to the road. The Sump is typically planned underneath the vehicle porch .

Deciding the capacity of sump

Sump capacity

At the planning stage, you should decide the sump size. This size is directly proportional to the number of families/houses that you propose to have in the site and also depends on the water availability. If there is only one house then a 6000 liters to 8000 liters capacity sump is sufficient. If you are proposing more houses for the purpose of giving for rent, then consider an additional 4000-5000 liters per each extra house. A bigger sump is more expensive and takes up space but it is very useful especially when there is water scarcity.

Deciding the sump size

Sump depth is usually taken to be 5′ and not more as a man (cleaning the sump) should be able to stand in the sump with his head sticking .

The  size is calculated based on the capacity . As a rough guide, you should consider that 1 cubic feet of space can contain approximately 28 liters of water. So divide the proposed sump capacity with 28 to get the required sump volume in cubic feet, that you have to build.

The Sump length and breadth area is calculated by dividing the sump volume by the depth, 5′. The figure that you get will dictate the length and breadth of the sump and the shape of the sump (rectangular or square).

Construction material for sump

Concrete is the preferred material

Ideally a concrete sump, cast at site is the best for an underground tank. This is because you need not worry about  water seepage and contamination of the stored water from the soil or underground water or sewage. This type of tank will last long and is fairly maintenance-free.

Bricks can also be used for building sumps

But this type of sump is at risk of leaking if not constructed properly. Use good quality bricks and rough plaster the outside and smooth plaster the inside of the sump. To prevent cracks, use a plastering mesh when applying plaster.The sump plastering should be completed all at once to avoid cracks.

Conclusion

Once you have decided the type of construction method that you want to adopt, then the next step is to build the foundation. Likewise the foundation of the building should be strong as much as required to lead a long life. Additionally, reach out to the Premium Builders in Coimbatore who are the best and experienced Home builders and best construction firm to get started on your custom home.

cginfra

CG Infra is the Best House Builders in Coimbatore with good service and excellent quality service at every stage of your dream.

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