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Tech

Different Types of Capacitors and Their Uses

Here provides some common types of capacitors for you to learn capacitors well.

Ceramic Capacitors (CC)

Ceramic Capacitors (CC)
Material: Use ceramic material as medium, coat a layer of metal (silver) film on its surface, and then sinter at high temperature as an electrode. Ceramic capacitors have three types of Class 1 dielectrics (NPO, CCG), Class 2 dielectrics (X7R, 2X1) and Class 3 dielectrics (Y5V, 2F4).
Features: Class 1 have the advantages of small temperature coefficient, high stability, low loss and high withstand voltage. The maximum capacity does not exceed 1000pF, commonly used are CC1, CC2, CC18A, CC11, CCG and other series. Mainly used in high frequency circuits.
Class 2 and Class 3 have advantages of high dielectric coefficient, large capacity (up to 0.47μF), small volume, and poor loss and insulation compared to Class 1.
Application: Widely used in medium and low frequency circuits for DC blocking, coupling, bypassing and filtering capacitors. And commonly used are CT1, CT2, CT3 and other three series.

Polyester Capacitors (CL)

Polyester Capacitor (CL)
Material: A non-polar capacitor with a positive temperature coefficient (that is, when the temperature increases, the capacitance becomes larger) made of polar polyester film as the medium.
Advantages: High temperature resistance, high pressure resistance, moisture resistance and cheap price, suitable for bypass capacitors.
Application: Generally used in medium and low frequency circuits, and commonly used models are CL11, CL21 and other series.

Polystyrene Capacitors (CB)

Polystyrene Capacitors (CB)
Material: There are two types of foil type and metallized type.
Advantages: Foil type has large insulation resistance, low dielectric loss, stable capacity and high precision, but large volume and poor heat resistance; metallized type has good moisture resistance and stability, and can recover after breakdown, also it has advantages of the low insulation resistance and poor high frequency characteristics.
Application: Generally used in medium and high frequency circuits, and commonly used models are CB10, CB11 (non-sealed foil type), CB14~16 (precision type), CB24, CB25 (non-sealed metallization), CB80 (high pressure type), CB40 (sealed metallization) and other series. In short, they used in various precision measuring instruments, car radios, industrial proximity switches and high-precision digital-to-analog converter circuits.

Polypropylene Capacitors (CBB)

Polypropylene Capacitors (CBB)
Material: It is a negative temperature coefficient non-polar capacitor that made of non-polar polypropylene film as the medium. There are two types of unsealed (commonly encapsulated with colored resin paint) and sealed (encapsulated with metal or plastic housing).
Advantages: Small loss, stable performance, good insulation and large capacity.
Application: They are generally common in medium and high frequency circuits or as starting capacitors for motors, and widely used foil polypropylene capacitors include CBB10, CBB11, CBB60, CBB61, etc.; metallized polypropylene capacitors include CBB20, CBB21, and CBB401 series. We often use CBB capacitor series in high frequency and high power circuits such as filtering, cross-line, resonance, etc.

Monolithic Ceramic Capacitors (MLCC)

Monolithic Ceramic Capacitor (MLCC)
Material: Multi-layer laminated ultra-miniature capacitors sintered with barium titanate-based ceramic materials.
Advantages: It has the advantages of reliable performance, high temperature resistance, moisture resistance, large capacity (range 1pF~1μF), and small leakage current.
Disadvantages: Low working voltage (withstand voltage lower than 100V).
Application: Widely used in resonance, bypass, coupling, filtering, etc, and commonly used are CT4 (low frequency), CT42 (low frequency), CC4 (high frequency), CC42 (high frequency) and other series.

Mica Capacitors

Mica Capacitors
Material: Mica is the medium, and a layer of metal film (silver) is sprayed on the surface as the electrode, which is laminated according to the required capacity and then dipped and compressed in the bakelite shell (or ceramic or plastic shell).
Advantages: Good stability, small distributed inductance, high precision, low loss, large insulation resistance, good temperature characteristics, that is, good frequency characteristics, high operating voltage (50V~7kV) and so on.
Application: We always employ them for signal coupling, bypassing, tuning, etc. in high-frequency circuits. For example, they are common in occasions that require high stability and reliability of capacitors, such as instruments and meters of electronic, power and communication equipment, such as aerospace, aviation, navigation, rockets, satellites, military electronics, and oil exploration equipment. Commonly used ones are CY, CYZ, CYRX and other series.

Paper Capacitors (CZ)

Paper Capacitors (CZ)
Material: The thin capacitor special paper is the medium, and the aluminum foil or lead foil is the electrode.
Advantages: The capacitance (100pF~100μF) has a wide working voltage range, and the maximum withstand voltage value can reach 6.3kV.
Disadvantages: Large size, low capacity accuracy, large loss, and poor stability.
Application: Common ones are CZ11, CZ30, CZ31, CZ32, CZ40, CZ80 and other series.

Metallized Paper Capacitors (CJ)

Metallized Paper Capacitors (CJ)
Structure: Using vacuum evaporation technology, a layer of metal film evaporates on the paper coated with paint film as an electrode.
Advantages: Compared with ordinary paper capacitors, it is small in size, large in capacity, and has strong recovery ability after breakdown.
Application: Common ones are CJ10, CJ11 and other series.

Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors (CD)

Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors (CD)
Material: By winding the aluminum foil (positive electrode) with an oxide film, the backing paper impregnates with the electrolyte solution together and the cathode foil lamination. Appearance package has tube type and vertical type. And there is a blue or black plastic cover outside the aluminum shell.
Advantages: The capacity range is large, generally 1~10000μF, and the rated working voltage range is 6.3V~450V.
Disadvantages: Medium loss, large capacity error (maximum allowable deviation is +100%, -20%), poor high temperature resistance, long storage time and unstable working state.
Application: Usually used in DC power circuits or medium and low frequency circuits for filtering, decoupling, signal coupling, time constant setting, and DC blocking. Note that the polarity cannot connect wrong when using a filter capacitor in a DC power supply.

Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitors (CA)

Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitors (CA)
Material: There are two forms:
1) The foil type tantalum electrolytic capacitor adopts a winding core inside, the negative electrode is liquid electrolyte, and the medium is the oxidized tantalum. Common models are CA30, CA31, CA35, CAk35 series.
2) The positive electrode sinters with very fine tantalum powder blocks. Packaging comes in many forms. Widely used models include CA41, CA42, CA42H, CA49, CA70 (non-polar) and other series.
Advantages: Dielectric loss, good frequency characteristics, high temperature resistance, low leakage current.
Disadvantages: High production cost and low pressure resistance.
Application: Widely used in various medium and low frequency circuits and time constant setting circuits in communications, aerospace, military and household appliances.

Mica Trimmer Capacitors (CY)

Mica Trimmer Capacitors (CY)
Material: It consists of a fixed piece and a moving piece. The fixed piece is a metal piece, and a layer of mica flakes is the most medium on its surface. The moving piece is an elastic copper or aluminum piece. Adjust the moving piece and the fixed piece by adjusting the screws on the moving piece, then the distance between the slices changes the capacitance. There are single trimmers and double trimmers.
Advantages: You can adjust the capacitance repeatedly.
Application: Used in transistor radios, electronic instruments, and electronic equipment.

Ceramic Trimmer Capacitors (CC)

Ceramic Trimmer Capacitors (CC)
Material: Ceramic is the medium, placing the semicircular silver layer on both the moving plate and the stator. By rotating the moving plate to change the relative position between the two silver plates, the size of the capacitance can be different.
Advantages: Small size, multi adjustment, easy to use.
Application: Used in transistor radios, electronic instruments, and electronic equipment.

Film Trimmer Capacitors

Film Trimmer Capacitors
Material: Use organic plastic film as a medium, that is, add it between the moving piece and the fixed piece. Adjust the screw on the moving piece, and make the moving piece rotate to change the capacity. Film trimmer capacitors are generally divided into double trimmers and quadruple trimmers. Some sealed double-connected or four-connected variable capacitors have their own thin-film trimmer capacitors, which are installed on the top of the casing, making it easier to use and adjust.
Advantages: With small size, light weight, you can adjust it repeatedly and it is easy to use.
Application: Used in transistor radios, electronic instruments, and electronic equipment.

Air Variable Capacitors (CB)

Air Variable Capacitor (CB)
Material: The electrode consists of two sets of metal sheets. One set is the fixed piece, the other is the moving piece, and the air is the medium between them. When the rotor is rotated to make it all screw into the stator, its capacitance is the largest, on the contrary, when the rotor is fully screwed out of the stator, the capacitance is the smallest. Air variable capacitors are divided into single-connection and double-connection.
Advantages: It is easy to adjust, with stable performance, and not easy to wear.
Disadvantage: Bulky.
Application: Used in radios, electronic instruments, high-frequency signal generators, and communication electronic equipment.

Film Variable Capacitors

Film Variable Capacitors
Material: A plastic film is added between the moving piece and the stator as a medium, and the shell is encapsulated by transparent or translucent plastic, so it is also called a sealed double-connected and four-connected variable capacitor.
Advantages: Small size and light weight.
Disadvantages: It is easy to wear.
Application: Single connection is mainly used in simple radios or electronic instruments; double connection is used in transistor radios and electronic instruments and electronic equipment; quadruple connection is commonly used in AF/FM multi-band radios.

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